Turkey is an interesting case... It's a country at a traditional physical crossroads of humanity, and if I recall correctly it was a Turkish president (or their equivalent leader back then) that put them on the road to secular gov't back in the 1920s (?). I can't recall his name.
Interesting that one leader could drive that movement - if in fact it happened that way. Their religion was Islam (with local turk traditions influencing it) and definitely male driven...(what's the word for a society headed by the elder male?). Wonder how it would have turned out if he'd been a caliph or mullah determined to stick to strict Muslim rule?
The "crossroads" thing is important, since this happened in a time of closed-door diplomacy, WWI, and all that. And the border of "East and West". Russia had always been a nagging thing to turkish independence, and I wonder how that might've edged them to move toward Western political standards.
Notice the article Alex posted also made reference to Turk secularists being backed by a powerful military. We need to ensure our military is never co-opted by fundamentalists in this country....